The teaching of Political Science at Osmania University began in the year 1919 in the Department of History. In 1948, Political Science acquired the status of an independent discipline with the establishment of a separate Department. Since its inception the Department has been continuously evolving with the adoption of new courses from time to time, with the introduction of research and guidance facilities and establishment of specialized areas of research and teaching.

Political Science is offered as a course of study at the U.G., P.G., M. Phil. and Ph. D level. Further it is offered through distance mode at U.G. and P.G. levels. Presently Political Science is offered at P.G. level in University College of Arts and Social Sciences and three other constituent colleges . There are 27 faculty members in the department. Nearly 300 teachers in political science are working in affiliated colleges. Around 150 students enroll every year in political science at M.A. level in the OU constituent colleges. About 800 students enroll at M.A. level through distance mode offered by O.U. In all close to thirty thousand students are studying political science at U.G. level. In the last one and half decade 90 research scholars were awarded Doctorate and 53 research scholars were awarded M. Phil in political science. Presently 54 research scholars are working for Ph.D. degree and 24 research scholars for M.Phil. Degree in the department.

The Department has the distinction of contributing its outstanding personalities to various positions. The members of the department have occupied eminent positions at the state, National and International level. Among them, late Professor G. Ram Reddy had the distinction of heading the University Grants Commission as its Chairman and was also the Vice-Chairman for Commonwealth Learning. Late Professor Rasheeduddin Khan was nominated to Rajya Sabha. Professor N.G. Rajurkar delivered series of lectures to the Members of the Parliament in 1995.
Further, the members of the Department of political science have the distinction of heading some of the important research institutions like ICSSR (South Regional Center, Hyderabad) and Center for Indo-American Studies. Many of the faculty members also had the opportunity of visiting foreign universities on academic assignment. In addition to this, the department is known for contributing its faculty services to various organizations, associated with higher education in the State and Country. Apart from this, some of the members of the faculty are also closely associated with various Voluntary / Non-Governmental Organizations dealing with the issues of Farmers, Women, Dalits, Environment etc.